Tuesday, January 21, 2020

George MacDonalds The Princess and the Goblin :: MacDonald Princess Goblin Essays

George MacDonald's The Princess and the Goblin The moon has been worshipped as a female deity since the beginning of time. Not only is the moon a feminine principle, it is also a symbol of transformation due to its own monthly cycle of change. With this in mind, it is clear upon a close reading of The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald that the grandmother figure is a personification of the moon, and as such is a catalyzing agent for Irene's maturation and transformation through the course of the novel. Taking this a step further, the elder Irene contains the threefold aspect of the Moon Goddess. She is Artemis, Selene, and Hecate; the crescent moon, the full moon, and the dark moon; maiden, mother, and crone (Rush, 149). Due to the three-fold nature of the grandmother, one can break this story into three parts. It begins with Hecate the Dark Moon and crone, moves to Artemis the crescent moon and maiden, and ends with Selene the full moon and the mother. After interacting with each of these aspects, Irene undergoes a significant transformation which ultimately leads her to the next aspect. This tripartite structure is prevalent in folklore. Irene encounters Hecate the Dark Moon in her first two visits to her grandmother. This image of the grandmother is reinforced in two ways in Irene's encounter with her. First, her physical description matches the dark aspect, "she was dressed in black velvet with thick white heavy-looking lace about it; and on the black dress her hair shone like silver"(MacDonald, 13). Silver is the metal associated with the moon (Jobes 119). In addition, as Hecate is one of the caretakers of children (Stapleton, 89) and in the second scene with the grandmother, while she is still Hecate, she heals Irene's injured thumb. However, there is a much more subtle way in which the grandmother is developed as being Hecate. Since Hecate is the moon before, "she has risen and after she has set," (Jobes 1120) then the dark aspect of the grandmother in her first two scenes demonstrates that Irene is still in the dark period before her major transformation, before being brought into full illumination. Despite being within the dark aspect, Irene still benefits from her first encounter with her grandmother and thus undergoes a small change. Due to meeting her grandmother, Irene realizes that sometimes it is wise to keep her own counsel.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Jrd Tata Essay

Life is full of people who inspire , influence and leave some impression on, you – in sense good or bad, they change the way you look at things and that is whom, you consider your role model to be, however , it was crystal clear in my mind that the person would be no other but, JRD TATA. Having grown up reading his motivational stories, tales of success, inspirational examples and hearing references of his revolutionary thinking and conquest in varied fields, little doubt was left that it could be someone else. That’s precisely when i stumbled upon , The Last Blue Mountain written and crafted so well by R.M. LALA that the entire saga of JRD TATA had me beguiled and captured for a couple of days. What fascinated me, was not how he was so successful but how, he was generations ahead in his thinking and miles ahead of his any competitor. Exactly at the moment there was a stirring feeling of, how little we know of the man who has gone on to become a synonym for richness, Ac hievements and out of box thinking. The mind was clear, it had to be Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and no one else. Born in Paris, an Indian by nationality and â€Å"karma† JRD TATA went on to be the face of Industrialization in India. A man known for his ethics and principals took over in an era where the rules were more British friendly. Little is it known that JRD TATA was born to a French mother and that his first language was French. JRD TATA is credited to be the founder of TCS, Tata Motors, Titan Industries, Tata Communications, Tata tea, and Voltas but little is it known that he was the first Indian to be a licensed pilot as well. He went on to found India’s first commercial airline, Tata Airlines in 1932, which became Air India in 1946, now India’s national airline. JRD Tata was appointed as Chairman of Air India and a director on the Board of Indian Airlines – a position he retained for 25 years. Such were his success that he was bestowed with the title of Honorary Air Commodore of India. Bharat Ratna JRD Tata had a life which were full of achievements and recognition, yet people who have had the pleasure of interacting with him, were in love with not the industrialist inside him but for the person he was. As Sudha Murthy recalls – â€Å" I always looked up to JRD. I saw him as a role model for his simplicity, his generosity, his kindness and the care he took of his employees. Those blue eyes always reminded me of the sky; they had the same vastness and magnificence.† (Sudha Murthy is a widely published writer and chairperson of the Infosys Foundation involved in a number of social development initiatives. Infosys chairman Narayana Murthy is her husband.) So i chose JRD Tata not only because he has stood up and shone in the field of business or went on to capture varied field and have the capability to see beyond the normal horizons and peek into what lay generations ahead but also because people remembered him to be a good human always. He is known for his kindness, simplicity and the care he took of people around. He goes on to teach everyone a lesson of humbleness and significance of â€Å"karma† in ones life. He personifies – simple living, high thinking and teaches us how to maintain a balanced personality. There is one quote of his, which reflects a great volume of him – â€Å"BE NICE TO PEOPLE ON YOUR WAY UP, FOR YOU NEVER KNOW, WHOM YOU WILL MEET, ON YOUR WAY DOWN† JRD Tata never let success deviate him from a path of being a human. The acknowledgment that one day what has been built with hard work, sweat and time may cease to exist, made him altogether more grounded and related to reality and people. The views which i would want to adopt in my life are the humbleness and kindness. For he makes me realize that it’s not a person’s bank account which makes people like him, it is the behaviour which he has. It’s about being a human. Yes, it will always be about hard work and dedication to succeed. To be able to take risks and trust your decisions but it will also be about the fact that after every failure you would have the courage to try again. Its about doing your work with sincerity and the rewards and acknowledgments shall follow without even looking for them. Its about learning the elementary of life – that loss is a reality and loving what you do is the best thing you can ask for. I have imbibed the fact, that if you wish to leave a mark behind, you have to be honest and truthful to your work but at the end of it all, being a good human is more essential than creating a good product for consumption. In the end nothing describes him better than his own words – â€Å"I never had any interest in making money. None of my decisions were influenced by whether it would bring me money or wealth, all I was concerned about was, sleep at night.† -JRD TATA.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Nursing Philosophy Nursing And Nursing Essay - 1660 Words

Nursing Philosophy Nursing philosophy is defined as a nurse or students thought of what they believe to be true about the nature of the profession of nursing and to provide a base for nursing practice. (2016, para.1) The nursing field continues to develop into a professional scope of practice and nurses continue to work to develop a high standard for the profession. The values and skills that nurses’ learn as they care for patients continue to develop into rules and regulations for future nurses. As a nurse it is important to create the best environment for patients, family members and co-workers. After graduating from high school I obtained my STNA and then began my college career in the health field as a physical therapy major. This past year I transitioned to nursing after seeing how much more I am able to work directly with patients. The reasoning behind my nursing philosophy is that I have gained knowledge and love for the profession through working as a certified nurses aide for the last four years. The love for helping others and the ability to help individuals during their times of need has grown on me and developed into a passion. Through education and work experiences my philosophy will transform overtime. Currently, I believe in a nursing philosophy that states strong principals that encompass empathy, compassion, and respect towards patients and their families. In addition, nurses must stay abreast of developing health care trends, be critical thinkers andShow MoreRelatedNursing Philosophy Of Nursing727 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction As a nursing student in the BSN program at West Coast University, I have discovered my skills and knowledge to prepare myself on how to be an efficient nurse as well as a nurse that truly cares for the best quality of care given to a patient. I have found some good qualities and insight in the paradigms to a philosophy of caring as a nurse. In this paper I will discuss the four paradigms of nursing which includes: Health, Nursing, Client/Person, and Environment. As a nurse, one mustRead MorePhilosophy Of Nursing : Why Nursing Essay1268 Words   |  6 PagesJoalexis Philosophy of Nursing Why Nursing? When I graduated high school, I wanted to have a career in the healthcare field, I enrolled at Valencia College to do a major in Chemistry, because I wanted to complete the pre-medicine requirements in order to attend medicine school. While in school I was working at Walmart, it was a decent job. However, my passion to work on the healthcare field, made me put my pre-medicine studies to a standby, and enrolled in an emergency medical technician programRead MoreMy Philosophy Of Nursing And Nursing866 Words   |  4 Pagesprofession of nursing has matured from the time of Florence Nightingale. Nursing has gone from just treating dying soldiers on the battlefield to helping guide people through their entire lives from birth to death. The maturation of nursing has led to changes in nursing philosophy and allowed for practitioners of Nursing to meld these philosophies together to form their own philosophy. In this paper I will explain my philosophy of nursing and compare it to Virginia Henderson s definition of nursing alongRead MorePhilosophy Of Nursing : Teaching Nursing1454 Words   |  6 PagesPhilosophy of Nursing Introduction / Importance of the Philosophy of Nursing As professional nurses, we all have our different beliefs and perceptions as to the nursing profession. An individual philosophy of nursing is defined by each nurse’s belief. My philosophy of nursing is rooted in my fundamental understanding of human beings and their nature of existence, rooted in the values of accountability, compassion, and professionalism. I do believe as a nurse, one should possess the qualities of diseaseRead MoreNursing Philosophy : Nursing Practice1233 Words   |  5 Pages Nursing philosophy2 Nursing Philosophy Name: Institution: Date: Nursing Philosophy I am ascribed to the philosophy that effective nursing practices ought to be patient-centered. Referring to Hobbs (2009), patient-centered care is the provision medical services in a manner that is respectful and responsive to patient’s values, preferences, and needs at individual level. In essence, patient-centered care is built on the principleRead MoreNursing Philosophy And Theories Of Nursing1001 Words   |  5 Pages Nursing Philosophy/Theories Eric Trotta West Coast University Nursing 492 Nursing Philosophy/Theories The four elements to the nursing paradigm according to Potter, Perry, Stockert, Hall (2013) is person, health, environmental/situation, and nursing. Potter, Perry, Stockert, Hall (2013) state, â€Å"Nursing is an art and a science† (p. 1). Nurses are the first people see in the hospital or medical facility, they must strive to be knowledgeable in their field of practice. I haveRead MoreMy Nursing Philosophy Of Nursing1834 Words   |  8 PagesNursing is a special profession for which person needs to feel dedicated for. Nursing is define in many ways but according to AmericanNurse Association it is â€Å"the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations†. When I read that definition it feels like it is all that nursing is about. MyRead Morenursing philos ophy1276 Words   |  6 Pages Nursing Philosophy: My Nursing Abstract Philosophy is a system of beliefs, it is often looked at as an effort to define nursing situations that is observed to exist or happen and serves as the basis for later theoretical formulations. Florence Nightingale the first nurse theorist, philosophy states that nursing is establishing and environment that allows persons to recover from illness. Nursing has four metaparadigms the client, the environment, health and nursing. MetaparadigmsRead MoreNursing Philosophy637 Words   |  3 PagesPhilosophy of nursing is an occupation consisting of professional individuals that exhibit and express compassion, respect, dignity and integrity to their patients and fellow coworkers. Nursing is not just a career, it is intertwined in the way we think, make decisions and prioritize values. As a nurse, it is important to me to provide the highest quality nursing care possible to achieve excellence in patient outcomes, while simultaneously, providing a respectful healing environment and work wit hRead MoreNursing Philosophy1001 Words   |  5 PagesNURSING PHILOSOPHY, 1 NURSING PHILOSOPHY NURSING PHILOSOPHY, 2 Nursing philosophy Definitions Philosophy Philosophies encompass a multitude of value statements and beliefs. Philosophies are based on knowledge derived from reality, personal values, existence, reasoning, and relevant presentation of concepts. According to Alligood (2014), they address concepts such as person, environment, health, and nursing. Philosophies are derived from different theoretical

Friday, December 27, 2019

Impact Of Technology On Society s Society Essay - 1549 Words

Impact of Technology on Society Large sections of society have the ability to travel whenever and to wherever they please, whether be it for pleasure or work. Communication with friends and family across the globe happens instantaneously with a simple click of a button. The movement of resources and products occurs around the world daily and items that were at one time based in a location across the globe can be delivered and on hand the next day. Global transportation, communication and trade create an immense network, which ultimately shrinks the world while at the same time expands our knowledge of other cultures and practices. This network allows people to connect on a worldwide scale; an idea that was not even conceivable a hundred years ago. The world has not always been the massive and interconnected society that it is today. Populations were often isolated by geography and economics. It has come a long way from the prehistoric times when communications were stories passed do wn by word of mouth and cave drawings and continues to flourish in a large variety of new and creative ways. From small tribes consisting of hunters and gatherers the world has morphed into a complex and interconnected group of diverse people that continue to discover new, revolutionary ways to improve life. (Copp, 2015) Humanity’s ingenuity and rapidly increasing need for information has propelled society on a quest that makes it increasing more dependent on technology and the many benefitsShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Technology On Society s Society1573 Words   |  7 PagesThe Impact Of Technology On Society Technology has always played an important part of our history, whether it impacts the medical field, astrological instruments, microscopic technology, and these innovations have all played an important role in changing the scientific views of society. These inventions were very important in the direction society took as a whole and should be recognized as such. However there were inventions that had more of an impact on the general society as others, and changedRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Society s Society1572 Words   |  7 PagesImpact of Technology on Society It goes without saying that Thomas Edison has been among the most impactful human beings to have ever walked the earth. Thomas Edison is responsible for pushing society into a new technological era thanks to his numerous inventions. I will briefly explain the life of Thomas Edison, the use and how he came upon all of his inventions and finally how it lead to the technological advancements that we see to this very day. This will lead to a better understanding of whoRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Society s Society2131 Words   |  9 Pages The Impact of Technology on Society Close to ninety percent of Americans currently own a computerized gadget such as a computer, cell phone, Mp3 player, tablet computer, game console, e-book reader, etc. (Gahran). These are gadgets that some people use in their everyday lives whether they’re at home lounging around playing on their cell phone, watching television, at school, or at work having to use the computer to get their job done. Technology is everywhere, even when you don’t notice itRead MoreImpact Of Technology On Society s Society1457 Words   |  6 PagesLynna Hong Donna Middleton English 101 24 April 2017 Look Up Growing up in today’s society is much different than it was twenty years ago, because today our society revolves one thing--technology. Technology is advancing each and everyday that people are becoming so attached to their electronic devices to the point where many feel they cannot live without it. With the advancement of technology, it has led to various problems such as lower communication skills, social isolation, bad habits, andRead MoreTechnology And Society s Impact On Society1568 Words   |  7 PagesTechnology and Society Introduction There are those who would claim that technology has not adversely influenced society in any overt way, and in fact that â€Å"technology has made society more durable,† yet in spite of this claim, it becomes clear that the technology/society divide and its subsequent associations have caused a vast number of problems within society today, not the least of which is the blurring of the line between the use of technology and basic societal interactions, resulting in aRead MoreImpact Of Technology On Society s Society2013 Words   |  9 PagesImpact of Technology in Today’s Society Have you ever wonder your life with the use of the technology which can restore entire world information? The Book Feed by M. T. Anderson take us to the world where people are mostly reliable on device which manipulate them with every single decision that want to make it. The Author Bring up point with question that in Society should we concern about used Technology or just take as much advantage we can and make ourselves Foolish? I agree with the AuthorRead MoreTechnology s Impact On Society957 Words   |  4 Pages Technology’s Impact on Society in the Banking World Technology s impact on society has changed in many areas of our lives. Technology has changed travel, you can now book your own plane ticket without going to a traveler’s agency, schooling you can take classes online, and have access to doctors and medicine without having to leave your home. I chose to write about the topic of banking. With the help of technology banks are able to reach out to more customers and provide better services toRead MoreTechnology s Impact On Society1507 Words   |  7 Pagesalia Monsanto ENC1101-Swirsky Argumentative/Persuasive Essay Technology’s Impact on Society 21ST century technology has indubitably made life more convenient for us. This can be looked at in a positive or in a negative way. Technology has essentially taken over the world. Replacing almost everything in our homes, schools and communities. Modern Technology has brought tons of negative effects on society including depression, lack of social skills, obesity, poor sleep habits, stress, constant distractionsRead MoreTechnology Impact Today s Society1099 Words   |  5 PagesTechnologies impact in today’s society is constantly changing, but not always for the better. â€Å"One of five children under the age of sixteen now own a smartphone. (â€Å"The Gadget Website†) The average age of a child that receives their first cell phone is eleven. I worry about a child’s well-being when I see them with these devices. On my tenth, birthday my father bought me a cell phone. I was unaware of the potential consequences I later faced when I misused it. Parents are givi ng children phones withoutRead MoreThe Developmental Impact Of Technology On Today s Society937 Words   |  4 PagesThe Developmental Impact of Technology on Today’s Society Society has become slaves to technology. Our society depends so greatly on technology that we have lost the ability of face to face communication. Nowadays all you see are people with their face stuck in their phones or latest gadgets and being oblivious to the world. The obsession and need to use technology affects every developmental stage. The affect starts at the young age of infancy and continues into childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Cultural Diversity Is An Undesirable Consequence Of...

‘Loss of cultural diversity is an undesirable consequence of international interaction’ Introduction ‘Loss of cultural diversity is an undesirable consequence of international interaction’ this statement can be explored by looking at a cultural element, more specifically the cultural element of Hollywood/commercial film. Culture refers to the behaviours, beliefs, attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and that are passed on from one generation to the next. The integration of the world in today’s society has resulted in the diffusion of culture through areas of transnational corporations, immigration, communications and transport. Diffusion is the spreading of something more widely, international interactions refer to†¦show more content†¦The cultural element of Hollywood/ commercial films has advanced through the technology and overall the changing values of today’s society. Since the creation of the first Hollywood film studio in 1911 (Dangcil 2007). American films have started to impact viewing habits of audiences all over the worl d. Glocalisation refers to the adaption of a product or service specific to each locality or culture in which it is sold. Holly wood and commercial films have been glocalised around the world by integrating themes from places into the film as well as hiring actors from all around the world rather than just the United States. Evidence from the past 20 years shows that Hollywood is expanding its embrace to include actors from Hong Kong, scripts written from South Korea and production facilities in China and New Zealand. 50% of its revenue is now coming from abroad and expect to increase. Striving toward the billion plus viewers in China and India however Hollywood studios are operating in ways that include and reflect the diversity of the audiences of the world. Figure 1 shows the total released length on the U.S, British and French film markets from 1893 to 1992, although this data is from very early on in history it represents the way that countries began influencing other countries on film making and eventually each country reached a plateau of the averageShow MoreRelatedConsequences of Social Categorization and Social Identity Theories1929 Words   |  8 Pages Consequences of Social Categorization and Social Identity Theories Vernon Smith BA426 Managing Cultural Diversity vsmith003@regis.edu Consequences of Social Categorization and Social Identity Theories Introduction In the modern world, workforce diversity has developed to be among the most imperative elements. Many organizations including Apple Inc. and all over the world have employed diversity managers to help develop effective workforce diversification (Podsiadlowski et al., 2013). TheRead MoreThe Conflict Process Model and Its Application in Organisational Settings2073 Words   |  9 Pagesthus be resulted, but will also discuss the different behavioural characteristics and mechanisms that various cultural backgrounds reveal in order to manage conflict. It will further evaluate the consequences and drawbacks from stereotyping particular cultural groups and analyse the role and responsibility of the management in understanding the cause of conflicts and specifically cross-cultural conflict and how they could be solved effectively. Conflict process model Conflicts are the issues that ariseRead More contemporary diversity in the structure of the family Essay2652 Words   |  11 Pages Q: Examine the sociological evidence concerning the idea that there is contemporary diversity in the structure of the family. The family is often seen as the corner stone of society. In pre-modern and modern societies alike it has been regarded as the most basic unit of social organisation and one that carries out vital tasks, such as the socialisation of children. Functionalists’ approaches to the family are based on the assumption that society operates on the basis of consensus and thatRead MoreLanguage, Immigration, And Ethnicity1972 Words   |  8 Pages (2001) examined social aspects of ethnic identity, and theorized immigrant language proficiency was one of three factors contributing to it, along with parental cultural maintenance and ethnic peer groups. Language was found to be a significant aspect in ethnic identity, as it is reinforced by cultural maintenance and peer interaction (p. 151). Still, this is atypical of most quantitative research on the topic, which has remained largely centered on wider population shifts. In contrast to the focusRead MoreInfluence of Culture on Strategic Human Resource6353 Words   |  26 Pagesculture. On the other hand, some researchers and scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of national culture-SHRM practices research. The current paper explores the employee cultural values in the Kenyan multinational companies (MNCs) and the influence of culture on SHRM practices. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and femininity are applied. These value dimensions reflect human thinking, and feelings of people, which pose basic problemsRead MoreProblematic Issues Arising with Intercultural Communication2857 Words   |  11 PagesIntroduction The globalization of the business industry has resulted in individuals from a diversity of cultures collaborating on a daily basis. Due to the current competitiveness and international engaging of the business world, the importance of being attentive to effective intercultural communication has been brought to the forefront. In order to analyse certain problematic issues that may arise in intercultural communication, it is firstly imperative to define what the concepts of both cultureRead MoreHow Culture Influenced The Values Rooted Within The Workplace1872 Words   |  8 PagesAccording to The Oxford Dictionary, culture is defined as â€Å"the customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people or other social group (Oxford, 2016).† With the rise of multiculturalism and diversity across many nations, understanding and practicing cultural etiquette within the business arena has never been of greater importance. Geert Hofstede, a well known le ader in intercultural research and studies, conducted a comprehensive study in which he analyzed how culture influencedRead MoreSustinable Developmen5403 Words   |  22 PagesSustainable Cities Research Institute, 6 North Street East, Newcastle-upon-Tyre, NE6 2Jf, UK. E-mail: william.hopwood@unn.ac.uk Copyright  © 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. sustainability of communities and the maintenance of cultural diversity. Copyright  © 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Received 1 February 2001 Revised 18 April 2001 Accepted 24 April 2001 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CONTESTED CONCEPT ustainable development is a contested concept with a wide rangeRead MoreThe Integration Of The European Union2289 Words   |  10 Pagesrise in free trade; leading to the concept of transnationalism (Waldinger, 2013). Transnationalism involves interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of many nation-states (Crang et al, 2003). Transnationalism is intrinsically linked to mobility; mobility is the ongoing and continuous cross-border movements in which people develop and maintain economic, social and cultural links in more than one nation, mobility (this sentence is too long but I’m not sure how to change it so itRead MoreThe Evolution Of Formal Personality Theory3340 Words   |  14 PagesThe history of formal personality theory began with Sigmund Freud, was then confronted by Carl Jung, and continued to evolve from then on, encompassing cultural, gender, and identity issues. The early theorists concentrated on predominant concepts that struggled to accoun t for every stage of development and explore into the depths of the human mind. Freud’s impact is so pervasive, his theory remains the foundational work for the study of personality all across the charts. Theorists Carl Jung, Alfred

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Five Forces free essay sample

The Five Forces are †¢Threat of new entrants oAn essential part of remaining competitive, an organization must constantly be aware of new organizations coming into the same market. They must be prepared to offer better services/costs/etc. than the new organization. †¢Threat of substitute products or services Organizations must be aware of products or services that could be used as a substitute for what they are offering. A cleaning company has to be aware that people are capable of cleaning their own houses. KFC must be aware that people can make their food at home. This helps them to decide how to market their services/products as more necessary than the substitutes. †¢Bargaining power of customers oCustomers are able to shop for the best prices, and are always more than willing to take their business to the lowest bidder. An organization must be aware of other prices and be able to match those prices if they want to keep their customers. We will write a custom essay sample on Five Forces or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page WalMart has a price match guarantee for a reason. People are able to go to one place and spend all their money, and WalMart still makes money because they get the products for less than they are buying them from the suppliers for. †¢Bargaining power of suppliers oNot only can customers take their business elsewhere; suppliers can as well. They are looking to get the highest paid price for their product, and will sell to the person who is willing to pay or trade the highest value. In order to get the best products or services to pass on to customers, an organization must be able to successfully bargain with their suppliers †¢Intensity of competitive rivalry oIf an organization is to be successfully competitive, they must know how close their competitors are to offering better products/services/prices. If a company is brand new and just starting out, they more than likely will not be in the same circle as a well-established company. But a company that has been around for years and has a well-rounded and loyal customer base will be much more intensely competitive.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Reverse Innovation free essay sample

Reverse Innovation Reverse Innovation, the term coined by two Dartmouth University Professors Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble refers to any innovation that is first introduced in the Developing countries with an intention to later launch it in the western or developed markets. Reverse Innovation is also popularly known as Trickle-up Innovation. It is so called because generally, all innovations have first been made in developed countries and then bought to developing economies. So far companies have been starting their globalization efforts by removing expensive features from their established product, and attempt to sell these de-featured products in the developing world. This approach, unfortunately, is not very competitive, and targets only the most affluent segments of society in these developing countries. Reverse innovation, on the other hand, leads to products which are created locally in developing countries, tested in local markets, and, if successful, then upgraded for sale and delivery in the developed world. We will write a custom essay sample on Reverse Innovation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Evolution of Reverse Innovation: A Historical Perspective The globalization journey of American multinationals has followed an evolutionary process which can be seen in distinct phases. Phase 1 — Globalization —Multinationals built unprecedented economies of scale by selling products and services to markets all around the world. Innovation happened at home, and then the new offerings were distributed everywhere. Phase 2 — Glocalization — In this phase, multinationals recognized that while Phases 1 had minimized costs, they weren’t as competitive in local markets as they needed to be. Therefore, they focused on winning market share by adapting global offerings to meet local needs. Innovation still originated with home-country needs, but products and services were later modified to win in each market. To meet the budgets of customers in poor countries, they sometimes de-featured existing products. Phase 3 —Local Innovation — In this phase, the first half of the reverse innovation process, multinationals are focusing on developing products â€Å"in-country, for country. † They are taking a â€Å"market-back† perspective. That is, they are starting with a zero-based assessment of customer’s needs, rather than assuming that they will only make alterations to the products they already have. As teams develop products for the local market, the company enables them to remain connected to, and to benefit from, global resource base. Phase 4 — Reverse Innovation — If Phase 3 is â€Å"in country, for country,† Phase 4 is â€Å"in country, for the world. † Multinationals complete the reverse innovation process by taking the innovations originally chartered for poor countries, adapting them, and scaling them up for worldwide use. Of course this is a simplified view of the world, but in essence it holds true. Now, more than ever, success in developing countries is a prerequisite for continued vitality in developed ones. Why Reverse Innovation is so important Developing countries like India, today, with their increasing disposable incomes, and the largest and ever surging middle class with higher than before spending capacitates, is now a very lucrative and potent target market for many global companies to venture into and capitalise on or to establish a stronger hold. Though the middle class in India today can afford to spend an extra buck for their added necessities and interests, they still find the products developed in the western economies out of reach, highly priced or unaffordable. Clearly, the products developed in the western or developed economies for their average income families would find very less consumers in countries like India despite having the world’s largest middle class population, simply because Indian Consumers’ price to features requirements of products do not match with that of the products developed in western markets for their average income families. Simply de-featuring the product and introducing the less featuristically loaded product model in the emerging markets would not attract them any more either. FIVE SUBSTANTIAL NEEDS GAPS In fact, the needs and opportunities in the developing world are so different from those in the rich world that the very first requirements for reverse innovation success are humility and curiosity. You must let go of what you’ve learned, what you’ve seen, and what has brought you the greatest successes. In fact, it is best to assume that you have just landed on Mars. Yes, buyers in the developing world have less money — but that is only the obvious beginning. The differences run much deeper. In fact, there are at least five enormous gaps that separate needs in the rich world from those in the developing world: the performance gap, the infrastructure gap, the sustainability gap, the regulatory gap, and the preferences gap. Performance Gap Simply put, with fewer dollars in hand, buyers in the developing world are willing to accept lower performance. This sounds simple enough, but it is not as straightforward as it at first appears. Consider a typical â€Å"good-better-best† rich-world product line. When global corporations headquartered in the rich world export to the developing world, the tendency is to focus just on the â€Å"good† offering, or perhaps even to water down the â€Å"good† offering a little bit further, from â€Å"good† to â€Å"fair,† to achieve the lowest possible price point. This seems sensible enough on the surface. The problem is that a modest price cut — say, 10 percent — is not nearly enough to make a difference to mainstream customers in the developing world, who may have only one-tenth the income of buyers in the rich world. Such low incomes, however, do not mean that developing world customers do not need innovative products. Indeed, what they need is radically reinvented designs that deliver at least decent performance at an ultra-low price. But there is no way to deliver 50 percent performance at a 15 percent price by diluting existing offerings. The only way to get there is to start from scratch, considering entirely new technologies. Infrastructure Gap In the rich world, most every citizen has access to modern transportation, communication, and energy systems, plus schools, hospitals, banks, courts, and more. In the developing world, most infrastructure is mostly still under construction. This does not mean, however, that developing nations can only gradually catch up. Precisely because they are building from scratch, they can invest in the most modern technologies. Meanwhile, the rich world will only invest as existing infrastructure reaches replacement age, and, even then, will be constrained by the necessity to make any new systems compatible with what already exists. As a result, developing nations are hot, new construction markets, while rich nations are tepid maintain, repair, and replace markets. The infrastructure gap, however, affects much more than infrastructure products and services. It affects any offering that relies on infrastructure — anything that plugs in, connects to a network, or moves from place to place, and more. Rich world offerings are designed with the implicit assumption that they will be consumed by those with access to rich-world infrastructure. Logitech’s mouse was designed for use in the office, not in the living room, because people in the rich world still largely â€Å"consume† video entertainment via cable or satellite, with no mouse in sight. Such offerings do not export well, so an innovation strategy is a must. New offerings must be designed with the developing world infrastructure in mind. In major cities, this may mean an enviable, next-generation infrastructure. In rural areas, it may mean no infrastructure at all. When GE designed an ultra-low-cost portable EKG machine for rural India, for example, one of the top considerations was long battery life. Sustainability Gap Worldwide, as the economy grows, the conflicts between economic vitality and environmental sustainability are likely to become more severe. That said, the pressures will not rise uniformly. In many cases, the intensity of sustainability issues are highest in the developing world. Winning in emerging markets requires recognition of these differences. In certain cities in China, for example, air pollution problems are extreme. As such, it is hardly a surprise that China is poised to take the lead in electric cars. Regulatory Gap When regulations function appropriately, they eliminate business behavior that is at odds with societal good. They keep consumers safe and markets fair. That said, when regulations become too complex, captured by vested interests, or technologically out-of-date, they can become needless barriers to innovation. Regulatory systems in the rich world are the result of decades of development while those in the developing world may be incomplete. Whether this is good or bad from a societal perspective is well beyond the scope of this paper, but the difference can make the developing world a more favourable environment for innovation in certain cases. Products and services designed around rich world regulations may become needlessly complex or expensive for developing world markets. Preferences Gap The world’s great diversity of tastes, preferences, rituals, and habits adds spice to international travel. It also sometimes makes it nearly impossible to achieve full potential in the emerging economies through a simple strategy of exporting existing offerings. PepsiCo, for example, is developing new snack foods, starting with a new base ingredient. Corn is not nearly so ubiquitous in India as lentils, so Pepsi is commercializing lentil-based chips. Because of these five of enormous needs gaps, the commonplace strategy of trying to win in the emerging economies by making light adaptations of successful rich world offerings is inadequate. Reverse innovation is the antidote, and reverse innovation is clean-slate innovation. It starts with reassessing customer needs from scratch. Dimensions| Summary| Definitinon| Any innovation that is first introduced in the Developing countries with an intention to later launch it in the western or developed markets. Reverse Innovation is also popularly known as Trickle-up Innovation. Origin| Globalization – Glocalization- Local Innovation- Reverse Innovation| Need| Glocalization has proved effective in reaching the top segments of the market in developing nations—buyers with needs and resources similar to those in the developed world. However, most growth opportunities in emerging markets are not at the top but in the middle market and below, where the gaps between customersâ€℠¢ needs and those of their developed world counterparts are enormous. Gradually a new approach is emerging, one that starts with the recognition that if you want to succeed in emerging markets, you must innovate for them. But that isn’t the end of the story. Because the global economy is richly interconnected, innovations developed for emerging economies can be extended to other markets, including those in the developed world. To do this a company must adopt a reverse-innovation mind-set, which means valuing the products that come out of emerging markets and being willing to rethink the underlying assumptions in its developed-world businesses. | Gaps that lead to reverse innovation| There are five phases or ‘gaps’ that need to be identified and evaluated: performance, infrastructure, sustainability, regulatory and preferences. Examples| Tata Motors – Tata NanoWhile companies like Ford set up its global automobile platform in India and catered to the niche premium segments in India, Tata introduced the Tata Nano for the price conscious consumer in India in 2009. Tata plans to launch Tata Nano in Europe and U. S. subsequently. GE – GE MAC 800GE’s innovation on th e GE MAC 400 to build a portable low-cost ECG machine to cater to the rural population who cannot afford expensive health care was launched as an improved version a year later in 2009, in U. S. as MAC 800. Procter and Gamble (Pamp;G) – Vicks Honey Cough – Honey-based cold remedyPamp;G’s (Vicks Honey Cough) honey-based cold remedy developed in Mexico found success in European and the United States market. Nestle – Low-cost, low-fat dried noodlesNestle’s Maggi brand – Low-cost, low-fat dried noodles developed for rural India and Pakistan found a market in Australia and New Zealand as a healthy and budget-friendly alternative. Xerox – Innovation ManagersXerox has employed two researchers who will look for inventions and products from Indian start-ups that Xerox can use for North America. The company calls them as‘innovation managers’Microsoft – Starter EditionMicrosoft is using its Starter edition’s (targeted at not so technically savvy customers in poor countries and with low-end personal computers) simplified help menu and videos into future U. S. editions of its Windows operating system. Nokia – New business modelsNokia’s classified ads in Kenya are being tested as new business models. Nokia also incorporated new features in its devices meant for U. S. ustomers after observing phone sharing in GhanaHewlett-Packard (HP) – Research Labs in IndiaHP intends to use its research lab to adapt Web-interface applications for mobile phones in Asia and Africa to other developed markets. Godrej – Chotukool RefrigeratorIn February 2010, Godrej Group’s appliances division, Godrej amp; Boyce Manufacturing Co Ltd test-marketed a low-cost (dubbed the world’s lowest-priced model at Rs 3,250) refrigerator targeted mainly at rural areas and poor customers in India. The product runs without a compressor on a battery and cooling chips. The company wants to use a community-led distribution model (as an alternative channel of distribution) to push for product growth. Tata – Swacch – World’s cheapest water purifierSwacch means clean in Hindi. Tata launched the water purifier – Tata Swacch targeting the rural market in India with the cheapest water purifier in the market. The product does not require running water, power or boiling and uses paddy husk ash as a filter. It also uses silver nanotechnology. It can give purified water enough to provide a family of five drinking water for a year. The company feels it will open a whole new market. Pepsico – Kurkure and AlivaPepsi is planning to give developed markets (particularly West Asia) a taste of its salted snack Kurkure (and also another snack Aliva). The product enjoys huge success in India and has become a Rs 700 crore brand within a decade of its launch. The success is attributed to product innovation and a good marketing strategy. E. g. Made from corn, rice and gram flour, zero per cent trans fats and no cholesterol, Rs-3 small packs for pushing sales in the lower-tier towns. Bharat Forge – Maintenance Management PracticeThe best practices group at Bharat Forge, a large Indian manufacturer and exporter of automobile components implemented a maintenance management practice it developed in India (developed over 15 to 18 years) in its units it acquired in countries (known for sophisticated engineering) in Germany, Sweden and U. S. The maintenance management process focused on minimizing downtime during machine maintenance and has an advanced information system that predicts problems before they happen. Consequently, Bharat Forge plants globally are very efficient and have an average down time of less than 10 per cent. KFC – Taco Bell – Yum! RestaurantsKFC test-marketed Krushers, a range of chilled drinks in the cold beverages segment in India and Australia and plans to introduce it to other markets. The launch in India was very successful as ‘Krushers’ accounts for 8 per cent of KFC’s beverage sales in India. Yum! Restaurant’s Tex-Mex chain Taco Bell has one Indian-designed dessert (tortilla filled with melted dark chocolate) on Taco Bell’s US menus. Husk Power SystemsIn India, Husk Power Systems brings light to rural population (over 50,000) by using locally grown rice husks to produce electricity (a unique and cost-effective biomass gasification technology). The company has also received seed capital from Shell foundation in 2009 to scale up operations. LG – Low-cost Air Conditioners (AC)South Korea based LG Electronics (LG) planned to develop low-cost air conditioners targeting the middle and lower-middle classes in India. Their goal was to manufacture air conditioners at the cost of air coolers which were very common. Renault – LoganRenault designed a low-cost model of its brand Logan for Eastern European markets. It also sold in the Western European markets later on. Better Place – Smart Grid of Battery charging/Swap terminalsIn Israel, Better Place, a electric vehicle (EV) services provider (creates systems and infrastructure that support the use of electric cars), created an intelligent grid of battery-charging terminals and battery-swap stations. The company is now present in many countries like China, Japan, Australia, the U. S. , Canada, France and Denmark. GE India – Steam TurbinesIn 2010, GE’s Indian arm tied up with Triveni Engineering and Industries Ltd to manufacture steam turbines in the 30-100MW range. The company plans to then take advantage of lower input costs incurred in manufacturing and export these products to markets in West Asia, Indonesia, Europe and Latin America. Coca-Cola – eKOCoolCoca-Cola’s Indian arm Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages introduced eKOCool, a chest cooler operating on solar energy with a capacity to store about 4 dozen 300 ml glass bottles. The innovation also charges a mobile and solar lanterns. Coca-Cola has plans to pilot the innovation in different cities in India and may be it will introduce it in other developed countries as well. Vodafone – ZoozoosVodafone, which operates in more than 30 countries has plans to make its lovable characters – Zoozoos go international. Zoozoos the black-and-white animated creatures, in fact are actual human beings and are quite a rage in India where they were launched in marketing ads and look like aliens and speak an alien language. But the brand message is very clear to people across all age groups. Vodafone has also licensed the characters (and accessories) for retail merchandise across India. Coca-Cola – Minute Maid’s PulpyMinute Maid’s Pulpy was extremely popular in China. It was basically an orange juice with pulp. Coca-Cola introduced it in other countries as well. Wal-Mart – Small format stores in MexicoWal-Mart learnt a lesson in Mexico. Mexican shoppers preferred smaller stores compared to the large format stores Wal-Mart had in the U. S. By 2012, Wal-Mart had 1,250 small stores (Bodegas Aurrera stores) out of 2,138 stores in Mexico. Wal-Mart then opened similar small-format stores in the U. S. and Latin America. Levi’s – dENiZEN brand imported to the U. S. In 2010, Levi Strauss amp; Co. launched its dENiZEN brand jeans in China. This was the company’s first brand launched outside of the United States. With success, the brand quickly spread to India, South Korea, Singapore and Pakistan markets. In July 2011, the brand began selling in the U. S. in Target stores. | Variables which Promote Reverse Innovation 1. Income gap- between the consumers of developing and developed countries . Preference Gap- Differing tastes and preferences of consumers of emerging markets 3. Infrastructure Gap- Need of development in the field of Communication Energy transportation. India doesnt have an established telecom infrastructure, for example, so they have gone straight to cellular telephones and skipped the landline. Thats resulted in innovation driven by infrastructure gaps. 4. Sustainability Gap- Sustainabil ity issues that are more pressing in poor countries than in rich countries. For instance, air pollution is a big problem in China. Air pollution is also an issue in the West, but it is a very big problem in China. If China wants to grow, it has to control air pollution. Electric cars, as a result, would be expected to be more attractive to the Chinese. 5. Performance Gap- What consumers in emerging markets need is radically reinvented designs that deliver at least decent performance at an ultra-low price. But there is no way to deliver 50 percent performance at a 15 percent price by diluting existing offerings. The only way to get there is to start from scratch, considering entirely new technologies. . Regulatory Gap- Regulatory systems in the rich world are the result of decades of development while those in the developing world may be incomplete. The difference can make the developing world a more favourable environment for innovation in certain cases. 7. Growth opportunities in Emerging Markets like India, China 8. Limitations of Glocalization- The top 10 percent of the people in a poor country like India are similar to those in the United States, so you dont need new innovation for them. You can send them products that Americans consume. But the top 10 percent is a very slim number. The rest of the population requires innovation. How would Reverse Innovation benefit India: Primarily Reverse Innovation would lead to further boom in industrialisation. As more and more Multinationals adopt and opt to produce and/or invent new products in India for local as well as western markets, the Indian economy would witness an increase in FDIs and also the Indigenous Multinationals would instinctively raise their investments to build advanced Ramp;D facilities that would inspire cutting edge innovation and engineering. It also means the engineers would experience higher employment opportunities, and the consumer market would profit from better products developed to cater to their needs at reasonable prices. Besides OEMs, Reverse Innovation would also lead to the overall development of the entire eco-system comprising of Tier I and II suppliers, technology vendors, educational institutions which support, fortify and facilitate this unprecedented growth through concurrent engineering, providing smart and agile engineering and production solutions to complex challenges, and development of resources. Reverse innovation is bringing the countries and global markets further closer by fading the global borders to make â€Å"one world, one market† phenomenon a more reality. Reverse innovation would provide further impetus to the globalization while increasing the influence of cross economic dependency and making cross border production and marketing viability plausible and effective.